Anatomy related

Oesophagus

The ‘gullet’ – lies within the neck and the chest

Stomach

The storage, mixing and initial digestive site of the upper gastrointestinal tract – lies within the abdomen

Small Bowel

The intestine that is the site of digestion of fats, carbohydrates and protein. Runs from the stomach down to the large bowel.

Duodenum

Uppermost part of the small bowel ie the bowel that the stomach empties into.

Jejunum

The continuation of the small bowel beyond the duodenum.

Ileum

The lowermost part of the small bowel that links the jejunum to the large bowel.

Colon

The large bowel.

Caecum

The first part of the large bowel.

Appendix

Rudimentary small structure arising from the caecum.

Ascending Colon

The colon that typically lies on the right of the abdomen

Transverse Colon

The colon that runs across the uppermost part of the abdomen.

Descending Colon

The colon that descends from the transverse colon down to become the sigmoid colon.

Sigmoid Colon

‘S’ shaped part of the colon that links the descending colon to the rectum.

Rectum

The lowermost part of the large bowel, used to store bowel content before defaecation.

Anus

The aperture at the lower end of the large bowel, contains specialised nerves to help control bowel emptying.

Anal Sphincters

Two muscles that encircle the anal canal. These muscles provide bowel control.

Perineum

The skin and structures near the anal canal and the genitals.

Hepatic

Meaning in relation to the liver.

Pulmonary

Meaning in relation to the lungs.

Pelvic Floor

Term used to refer to the muscular floor of the pelvis and how the urogenital organs and lowermost part of the bowel penetrate this muscular floor.

Pathology

Bowel Cancer

A malignant growth of the large intestine that can spread. You can find extra information and support from any of these sites Beating Bowel Cancer, Cancer Research UK, Macmillan Cancer Support.

Bowel Polyp

A protrusion of the lining of the intestine. Several types exist. Some can go onto form bowel cancer.

Dysplasia

term given to describe how abnormal a polyp is becoming. Low grade dysplasia means that cancer is not imminent. High grade dysplasia means that a polyp might soon become a cancer.

Metastasis

An area of spread of a cancer. The more common sites for a metastasis can include lymph glands, the liver or the lungs.

Stomacare

Jejunostomy

The jejunum is brought out onto the abdominal wall skin as an artificial opening (‘stoma’). For support you can visit IA Support

Ileostomy

The ileum is brought out onto the abdominal wall skin as an artificial opening (‘stoma’). You can find extra support at IA Support

Colostomy

The colon is brought out onto the abdominal wall skin as an artificial opening (‘stoma’).

Stomas can be either temporary or permanent.

Anaesthesia

General Anaesthetic

Patient is fully asleep.

Spinal Anaesthetic

Patient is a awake but numb from the waist down following an injection into the back.

Epidural

An indwelling line placed into the back to aid intra-operative and post-operative pain relief.

Caudal

A type of pain relieving injection placed at the lowermost end of the spine (sometimes usedto relieve pain after anal canal surgery).

‘PCAS’

A patient controlled syringe that delivers small doses of intra-venous morphine on demand.

‘TAP’ Block

Injections of local anaesthetic into both flanks to aid with post-operative pain relief. Sometimes used if an epidural or spinal cannot be sited or is contra-indicated.

Surgery

Laparoscopic

‘keyhole surgery’. Abdominal surgery performed through small cuts and therefore
generally associated with reduced post-operative pain when compared to conventional open
surgery. Surgical Innovations, ALS GBI

Open Surgery

Conventional abdominal surgery performed through either a vertical or a horizontal wound.

Proctology

Surgery to the anal canal and rectum. A ‘proctologist’ is the term for a colorectal surgeon performing such surgery.

Trans-Anal Endoscopic Operating ‘TEO’

Specialised microsurgery performed though the anal canal to remove large rectal polyps or small rectal cancers.

Multi-Disciplinary Team Meetings

Colorectal Cancer MDT Meeting

This weekly meeting involves multiple specialist professionals (colorectal surgeons, radiologists, pathologists, nurse specialists, oncologists, and administrative support staff) who discuss and ultimately agree on the optimal care of a patient with bowel cancer. Leeds has one of the biggest and most all-encompassing cancer MDT meetings in the UK. If you are in need of extra information or support you can go to Beating Bowel Cancer, Cancer Research UK or MacMillan Cancer support.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease MDT Meeting

This weekly meeting involves multiple specialist professionals (colorectal surgeons, gastroenterologists, radiologists, pathologists, nurse specialists, dietitians and administrative support staff) who discuss and ultimately agree on the optimal care of a patient with inflammatory bowel disease. Leeds has a very large and varied case-mix of patients with complex IBD needs. For extra support go to Crohn’s and Colitis UK

Pelvic floor MDT Meeting

This monthly meeting involves multiple specialist professionals (colorectal surgeons, gynaecologists, urologists, radiologists, nurse specialists, and administrative support staff) who discuss and ultimately agree on the optimal care of a patient with complex pelvic floor disorders such as prolapse, incontinence or defaecatory difficulties. Leeds led the development of pelvic floor MDTs.

Liver Resection MDT Meeting

This weekly meeting involves multiple specialist professionals (liver surgeons, radiologists, pathologists, nurse specialists, oncologists, and administrative support staff) who discuss and ultimately agree on the optimal care of a patient with bowel cancer that has
unfortunately spread to the liver. The Leeds’ Liver MDT deals with a very large casemix of relatively straightforward liver resections and much more complex cases turned down by other units. Leeds has the highest resection rate for cases of colorectal liver metastases in the country.

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Ian Botterill holds practices as both Leeds Teaching Hospitals and Spire Healthcare. To book a consultation, please contact his secretary.